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Publication Type:

Journal Article

Source:

Gondwana Research, Volume 105, p.84-95 (2022)

ISBN:

1342-937X

URL:

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1342937X21003543?dgcid=coauthor

Keywords:

Archean metallogeny, Electrical resistivity, hydrothermal fluids, magnetotellurics, Tectonic-magmatic-mineralization

Abstract:

<p>Although magmatic- and metamorphic- derived fluids are widely recognized mineralizing agents, the role of crustal architecture in defining source and sink zones within the middle to lower crust and upper mantle of ancient orogens remains enigmatic. The globally largest and best-preserved Archean greenstone belts lie in the Superior Province, Canada. They provide an ideal location to investigate the influence of igneous construction and subsequent syn-deformational plutonism and metamorphism on the localization of metal-rich melts and fluids throughout the crustal column. Integration of three-dimensional magnetotelluric modelling and seismic reflection sections across the Abitibi subprovince reveals details of a 'whole-of-crust' magmatic and hydrothermal system. East-west low resistivity structures broadly underlie the surface traces of the major deformation zones that are host to significant gold endowment (&gt;200 Moz), while mid-crustal cross trends suggest mineralized fluids flowed along 'pipes' within fault planes. Most low resistivity structures are inferred to represent domains containing interconnected zones of graphite and/or sulfide. These delineate relict mantle source/transit domains and crustal pathways enriched by the flow of magmas or metamorphic fluids genetically related to a late-stage pulse of ore-bearing magmatism, possibly as a result of slab break-off or delamination. Using the combined MT and seismic data, we develop a 3-D crustal-scale model which highlights how evolving orogenic architecture-controlled mass transfer and metallogenic processes developed.</p>